Rats are used to make rat monoclonal anti mouse antibodies. There are less rat- than mouse clones however. Rats genes from rodents of the genus Rattus norvegicus are often studied in vivo as a model of human genes in Sprague-Dawley or Wistar rats.
Associated membrane protein types are lipopolysaccharide selective barriers. Biological membranes include cell membranes, outer coverings of cells or organelles that allow passage of certain proteins and nuclear membranes, which cover a cell nucleus; and tissue membranes, such as mucosae and serosae.